The father of a policeman shot dead by a colleague during a bungled "cops and robbers" training exercise said there were "many fingers on the trigger" as Greater Manchester Police faced a damning inquest verdict of unlawful killing.
Pc Ian Terry, 32, died not only because of the individual fault of the officer who shot him but also because of the culture of rule-breaking, complacency and incompetence of more senior firearms officers at the force, his family said.
Peter Fahy, the force's chief constable, made a public personal apology following the highly critical verdict by the jury of unlawful killing - not only over the shooting of Pc Terry but also due to the planning and conduct of firearms training at GMP.
The five-week inquest at Manchester Coroner's Court heard of a catalogue of failures not only by the officer who shot Pc Terry but also in the planning, training and safety measures taken by GMP's firearms unit.
The officer who shot Pc Terry, granted anonymity and identified only as Chris, is still a serving officer.
He and GMP escaped prosecution after the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) said there was "insufficient evidence" to bring criminal charges. But the CPS said it may now review the case.
Pc Terry, from Burnley, Lancashire, brandished an unloaded handgun during the exercise while playing the role of a criminal fleeing in a car. The father of two was shot dead by his colleague, "Chris", as GMP's firearms unit practised in a disused factory in the city on June 9 2008.
His father Roy Terry, supported by his wife Sue and Pc Terry's wife Joanne, said his family had been "led to believe" by police that the death of his son, a "devoted husband and loving father", was a "tragic accident". But after five weeks of listening to evidence at the inquest, they were left "appalled and upset".
Mr Terry also spoke of the family's "disappointment" in a number of officers who were his son's friends, because of their "reluctance to accept any responsibility for their actions". He accused GMP of "complacency at all levels", adding: "The officer with the shotgun ultimately caused Ian's death but we firmly believe there were many fingers on the trigger."
Outside the coroner's court, GMP chief constable Peter Fahy issued a personal apology to Mr Terry's family, adding: "I accept that some of our systems and practices were inappropriate and did play a part in Ian's death." He said changes had been made to ensure training exercises are carried out in the safest way possible.